http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/r.k.v5i10.714

 

El emprendimiento juvenil en función al perfil psicosocial y las condiciones del entorno familiar

 

Youth entrepreneurship based on the psychosocial profile and the conditions of the family environment

 

Karina Florencia Torres-Vázquez

karina.torres@psg.ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1302-4485

 

Juan Carlos Erazo-Álvarez

jcerazo@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6480-2270

 

Cecilia Ivonne Narváez-Zurita

inarvaez@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7437-9880

 

Verónica Paulina-Moreno

verónica.moreno@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1517-6124

 

Recibido: 23 de marzo de 2020

Revisado: 12 de abril de 2020

Aprobado: 05 de mayo de 2020

Publicado: 19 de mayo de 2020

 

 

ABSTRACT

In the city of Cuenca, youth entrepreneurship has become highly relevant because young people make up a population segment with a high incidence in entrepreneurship. The objective is to determine family conditions and their impact on youth entrepreneurship, considering that families are responsible for educating young people in values such as initiative, self-confidence, commitment, social transformation and, especially, in the ability to take risks. This research was non-experimental-descriptive. The results obtained show that the family is responsible for the foreground training of the entrepreneurial spirit, followed by friends who encourage the young entrepreneurs to make their decision and maintain independence; therefore, a structure has been developed regarding the behavior of the entrepreneurs and the family influence respect to it based on their psychosocial profile.

 

Descriptors: Project management; market economy; private enterprises; family. (Words taken from the UNESCO Thesaurus).

 

 

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, youth entrepreneurship in Latin America has acquired great relevance because young people make up a population segment with a high incidence in entrepreneurship, since they have developed a series of skills that have been transferred to their work and daily life. Similarly, youth entrepreneurship is part of the identification of business opportunities by adolescents who seek to improve their living conditions through the leadership of innovative initiatives in the face of the high unemployment rates that the region faces, and the challenge of young people to get a good quality job.

From this perspective, young people are considered the most affected population given their levels of marginalization in society, frustration, lack of experience and low self-esteem. In this context, entrepreneurship plays a fundamental role in economic development and job creation in Latin America and particularly in Ecuador. Thus, a study carried out by (Lasio, Caicedo, Ordeñana, Samaniego & Zambrano, 2017) shows that the early entrepreneurship rate (ASD) rose to 29.6% in 2017, which represents that around 3 million adults between 18 and 64 years old started a new business; however, since 2013 there are persistent difficulties for businesses to exceed at least 3 months of operation, due to lack of financing, ignorance of the market and low cost effectiveness.

In Ecuador, the entrepreneurship intention of young people reaches 51.80%, which is determined by the attitude of people towards entrepreneurship, as well as by financial, legal, economic and social factors. (Miller, 2015). However, the profile of the Ecuadorian youth entrepreneur presents a particularity that is generalized in Latin America; in this respect, 40.3% of young people undertake because of the opportunity presented to them and 32.1% undertake due to necessity (Lasio, Caicedo, Ordeñana, Samaniego & Zambrano, 2017).

Regarding the conditions in which youth enterprises are born and develop, not all factors favor them, nonetheless, the family environment is considered one of the main engines for entrepreneurship, this is because the family contributes to the formation of values ​​as well as models and guides that have an effect on the growth of the young and affect the development of entrepreneurship, therefore, the present research aims to describe the psychosocial profile of the youth entrepreneur against the conditions of the family environment in the Cuenca city.

Considering that families are responsible for educating young people in values ​​such as initiative, self-confidence, commitment, social transformation and above all in the ability to take risks, it will be analyzed the role of the family in the attitude that young people have, as well as the main characteristics presented by the family group of young entrepreneurs who participate in the research.

In the city of Cuenca, youth entrepreneurship has acquired great relevance because young people make up a population segment with a high incidence of entrepreneurship. The problem of this research arises from the need to determine to what degree family affects the decision to undertake, since in the city of Cuenca entrepreneurship has increased significantly. This reality leads us to analyze the different criteria of those who already took their great entrepreneurial step and those who have not yet done it. In relation to this,  some people consider that as the young do not have a preserved job, they are taking a risk; while others consider that entrepreneurship is not related to their studies; for this reason, it is not considered growth. Such criteria may affect an excellent idea and limit the young persons to develop within their parents’ interests.

 

 

 

METHOD

This research had a descriptive non-experimental design. The study universe corresponded to the population of the Cuenca city, Huaynacapa parish. The sample consisted of 675 people who have developed enterprises in the locality.

 

RESULTS

Based on the results, it was obtained that 52.60% of the respondents corresponded to the female gender and 47.40% to the male gender, 43.40% ranged between 26 and 35 years and 39.5% from 36 to 45 years, so the survey defined the following corresponding factors related to the objective of the research:

The largest number of respondents came from parents with university studies, where the father's studies predominated, in addition, their parents worked or have worked in the public or private sector.

Dimension: Attributes

In this dimension, it was observed that the respondents were in complete agreement with the most relevant attributes with respect to the youth entrepreneur, such as:

1. Creativity and Innovation.

2. They took risks.

3. They were optimistic and visionary.

Dimension: Family influence

Most of the respondents expressed that the family have played a positive role in the creation and development of a company, so they were aware that being an entrepreneur required dedication. 79.20% of those surveyed confirmed that family opinion have directly influenced the creation of businesses.

Dimension: Entrepreneurial Intent

In this dimension, 72.40% of respondents have had the intention of creating an enterprise, and 25% have already formed their enterprise.

Dimension: Motivational Factor

According to the respondents, the factors that motivated entrepreneurship were independence and self-realization; that is why they were not seen as employees of a company created; however, they have also described that both the lack of support from institutions and the capital to start were demotivating.

 

PROPOSAL

Youth Entrepreneurship Proposal

With the purpose of analyzing youth entrepreneurship, psychosocial profile and family conditions, the bellow proposal has been developed in order to present different options that strengthen and help young people who have their business idea to undertake:

Situational diagnostic

Those internal and external factors that influence, project and enhance entrepreneurship are analyzed, for which it is important to link the organization's capacity with respect to the environment, in such a way that, in the future, it evolves and adapts to the changes that are considered pertinent. To these elements, it is important to involve the various action alternatives, identifying strengths and weaknesses, as well as the appropriate strategies according to the nature of the business.

Through the Internal Capacity Profile (ICP), the strengths and weaknesses of the enterprise are evaluated in relation to opportunities and threats, starting from a strategic diagnosis where the operating factors are involved according to the business line.

We will begin by evaluating the current situation of the enterprise, reflecting and reviewing its recent strategies, in this way, we will observe the gaps and those opportunities to define a strategy. To achieve this, we will start by conducting an organizational audit.

Opportunity Space

At present, it is important to explore business alternatives that adapt to the new normal of COVID-19 and that can survive in times of quarantine. This is why we will list below those opportunities that the youth entrepreneurs may consider to start their businesses.

1. Teleworking.

2. Online training.

3. Development of security for connections.

4. Development of Telemedicine Platforms.

5. Development of educational platforms and live classes for those students who cannot attend classes for health reasons.

6. Entrepreneurship with technological bases.

7. Enterprises with deliveries and / or services at home.

There are existing business models which oblige the entrepreneurs to innovate and look for unexplored markets in such a way that it becomes a market re-segmentation with lower volume, making it a reference for the competition.

Policies, Regulations and funding sources

In order to analyze the policies, regulations and sources of financing available for the young entrepreneurs of the city of Cuenca, the current policies that the central government maintains within its ‘A lifetime’ National Plan (PNBV 2017-2021) are analyzed, considering Axis 2. In this respect, Economy at the Service of the Economy, stating in its objective No. 5, states the following: Promote productivity and competitiveness for sustainable economic growth in a redistributed and supportive way, where production incentives are proposed to generate new ventures in such a way that it increases productivity,  generates added value and seeks permanent innovation focusing on boosting the economy of the national population (National Secretariat for Planning and Development - Senplades, 2017).

Conditions of the Family Environment

Regarding the conditions of the family environment in the face of youth entrepreneurship, it is important to analyze the factors that directly influence the decision to undertake and that leads people to business success. For most entrepreneurs, the thinking and criticism of the family is important at the moment of  starting a project. In addition to this aspect, we may identify that entrepreneurs of family generations are not afraid of creating a project, since their experience and the one of their family allows them to function better within the business field.

We will name the variables that must be taken into account with regard to the conditions of the family environment of a youth entrepreneur aligned with the variables that allow to achieve effectiveness in the entrepreneur's objectives. It is important to adjust or manage the set of indicators for each process related to those of their respective business units, as well as to the Mission of the organization for accomplishing the effectiveness of the proposed strategic objectives.

Value proposal

As a consequence of the research, it is important that the entrepreneurs, regardless of their psychosocial profile, must first study the market product of their ideas, carry out a strategic analysis, look at the internal rate of return and investment capacity, and apply those digital marketing strategies to improve and secure their sales.

For a product or service to be accepted over another, it is important to know about the added value that it has; that is, why is it a better supplier? For this reason, to ensure the success of the entrepreneur, it is important to provide a guide to the value proposition that improves sales strategies. Currently, the way to reach customers is through digital strategies, such as social networks that generate impact.

Today, the consumer is interested in knowing how to do things? or how to produce? Based on this, it is important that the entrepreneurs meet the needs or solve the problems of the potential client, applying improvement tools so that the consumers decide to choose their products. In other words, the value proposition focuses on studying the difference of the offered venture with respect to the competition, that is how people have highlighted the innovative characteristics that an enterprise should have.

 

CONCLUSIONS

As a result of the research, it was possible to determine that family  is the main relevant factor for the young entrepreneur, since it is an important element that contributes to train or not the entrepreneurs. Based on the behavior of the individual, we can describe that the entrepreneurial potential complies with those social characteristics, the same ones that are being formed within the family. As a conclusion, the family is the first responsible of encouraging entrepreneurial spirit, followed by friends who help the young entrepreneurs to make their decision and maintain independence.

The ideas aforementioned have described several recommendations to analyze the entrepreneurial behavior of the young person in order to advance those processes that may strengthen the entrepreneurship and also may be considered before undertaking.

 

FINANCING

Non- monetary

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Thanks to the Catholic University of Cuenca for promoting the development of this research with social relevance.

 

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© 2020 by the author. This article is open access and distributed under the terms and conditions of the CreativeCommons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/ 4.0 /).  

 

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