http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/r.k.v5i10.710

 

Integración de la responsabilidad social empresarial en proyectos de inversión dirigidos al sector agrícola

 

Integration of corporate social responsibility in investment projects aimed at the agricultural sector       

 

Oscar Patricio Ramón-Minchala

oscar.ramon@psg.ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6916-3436

 

Juan Carlos Erazo-Álvarez

jcerazo@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6480-2270

 

Cecilia Ivonne Narváez-Zurita

inarvaez@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7437-9880

 

Verónica Paulina Moreno

veronica.moreno@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1517-6124

 

 

 

Recibido: 19 de marzo de 2020

Revisado: 08 de abril de 2020

Aprobado: 01 de mayo de 2020

Publicado: 19 de mayo de 2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research focuses on the main export product of Ecuador which is organic banana produced by the alliance of associated producers in El Guabo canton called "ASOGUABO". The Motoragsa Organization Cia. Ltd. intends the widespread growth of Drones for the fumigation process, considering as main axes: the economic, social and environmental ones. The type of research was non-experimental, mixed and with emphasis on the qualitative approach. As a result, the urgent need to do business with producers is established by promoting schools of new arts, languages and technologies. Drone imports will be based on certified qualities such as ISO 9001, ensuring a long-term business with the stock of spare parts and ready to give training talks for proper after-sales service.

 

Descriptors: Agricultural economics; leadership; social responsibility; ecology. (Words taken from the UNESCO Thesaurus).

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Throughout Ecuadorian history, it has been experienced the cocoa boom of the 1880-1920 and 1950-1960 banana years, boosting the national economy and becoming the main axis of the good economies and economic crises of the country. It shows that we are a purely agricultural country. This sector is located in rural and sub-urban areas of the main cities of the coast and mountains. By virtue of this, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), in the agricultural sector, represented 1.8% in 2019, 6.4% was based on banana organizations, 7% on rice and 1% on corn producers  according to data from the (Central Bank of the Ecuador, 2019).

In order to increase productivity and the generation of added value, the National Government promulgates the fair distribution of the means of production and the promotion of innovation and technology systems that generate favorable conditions for the farmer. Such is the case of the legal framework regulated by government policies based on axis 5 of the National Plan 2017-2021 -A lifetime stipulated in (Technical Secretariat Ecuador Plans, 2017).

Organizations join these elements to carry out sustainable practices for the benefit of the country's large rural population, focusing on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Undoubtedly, investment in technology for agriculture in Ecuador is configured as a new mechanism of action and an opportunity for companies that import technological equipment for agriculture, which must be aligned with the requirements of the national government on one side and the other. Organizations must analyze social and environmental factors very carefully with their corporate vision and mission.

By virtue of all these changes the Motoragsa Organization Cia. Ltd. founded in 2010 specialized in the importation of agricultural equipment and machinery with national coverage counting on two divisions Costa and Sierra with commercial advisers, administration, marketing and logistics. It operates with 25 people that integrate the staff and with current demands to improve the profitability levels. For a correct sustainability of the organization, it seeks new and better ways to stay in the market through the proposal of new goals and objectives by considering business opportunities with the policies of the National Government that help it achieve its growth in next two years.

As a result, the Motoragsa Cia. Ltd. has focused on the southern coast of Ecuador, specifically, in the province of El Oro in the cantons: El Guabo and Pasaje. The idea is to make a correct analysis of the existence of small, medium and large farmers who have between 5, 10, 40 and up to 200 hectares of land with banana plantations and have had the main productive line to maintain their family and to contribute to the economic dynamism of the province and its surroundings. To maintain this dynamism, the banana producers have to protect themselves from fungal diseases such Black Sigatoka, which generates losses of up to 50% and affects its production not only in Ecuador, but worldwide, due to low yield of such fruit.

To combat this fungus, the vast majority of banana growers use paraffinic agricultural oil twice a week with the traditional method of aircraft or better known as Aero fumigation, impacting on the environment, schools, colleges, generating catastrophic diseases, among other damages. Consequently, it is proposed the importation of locally assembled agricultural drones with software designed for this sector with a focus on CSR as a commercial strategy and as an option of the Motoragsa Cia. Ltd. to protect the environment of this sector.

Based on the previous ideas, it is intended to have better benefits through this implementation, since it may strengthen the relationship of the Motoragsa Cia. Ltd. with the various stakeholders for standing out the labor of investors, banana agricultural producers, employees, society and the environment with this new business management model. In this way, the population will be at the forefront of the innovation of technological equipment for agriculture.

 

METHOD

The methodology was of a mixed and non-experimental, generating a descriptive-explanatory scope. Within this framework, deductive, inductive, historical - logical and analytical - synthetic methods were used; which allowed analyzing the object of study from different methodical perspectives, which implied the generation of results attached to the social conditions of the research framework (Bernal-Ávila, Erazo-Álvarez, & Narváez-Zurita, 2019).

The study population was made up of 123 organic banana producers belonging to ASOGUABO (Association of small banana producers of El Guabo) located in Gran Colombia 2321 Av. and Del Ejercito Av. in El Guabo-El Oro-Ecuador.

 

RESULTS

To meet the objective we have the following results: 46% of the respondents had the average needed to fumigate with Drones, 33% had the high need to switch to drone spraying and less than 20% needed to switch to drone spraying. Likewise, 44% of those surveyed could pay USD 2000 and USD 2400. From these evidences, 82% would also acquire an agricultural drone on credit requesting it from a credit cooperative, a bank and a trading company.

The farms are located between El Pasaje canton 44% and El Guabo 30%; also, the farms are near the main road by 58% and near a commune by 29%. Likewise, 90% of the population believed that fumigation with drone would help the environment.

Likewise, 55% of the people involved in the banana sector were men ranging in age from 31 to 40 years. Relatively, 65% of young university students have received information through a fair or events and 32% did not know about technological equipment such as drones. Likewise, 30% of the banana growers sprayed manually, 37% with motto, 22% with a plane and 9% with a drone. The need of the commune in educational scholarships is high with 51%, constant training is high with 61% and the school or other activities is high with 40%.

 

PROPOSAL

For the importation of agricultural drones as a new commercial line, several suppliers have been consulted looking for the best one that meets the market demands and the requirement of the Motoragsa Cia organization. Ltd. that has ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 standards.

Importation costs

The Motoragsa Organization Cia. Ltd. would have a capital of USD 51,300.00 for the new investment line in the project.

Level of competition

The current competitors that have a market share are indicated. The lines of deficiencies of the organization are very relevant to reach a successful business with respect to the existing competition, in  spite of there are not many competitors.

Integrated System of the Social Dimension

In the agricultural producer, the popular and supportive economy is focused on the organic banana producer, which is the one with the best economic possibilities within this segment due to the costs that are managed in the box prices per banana.

 

Stakeholder

The producer of organic bananas for the Motoragsa Cia. Ltd. is the group that focuses on the commercialization of Drones because it is the one that has the easiest access to new technologies.

Socio-economic matrix

The organic banana producer has a better economy than the traditional producer because they have a long-term contract by virtue of the international requirements of the green seal that ASOGUABO grants them.

CSR in agriculture Motoragsa Cia. Ltd.

Among the strategies of the Motoragsa Cia. Ltd., new ways of caring for the environment were highlighted, such as: be responsible for the environment, how to recycle the containers and the incentive to change the fumigation system.

Likewise, another marketing strategy is the hiring of teachers for different schools such as ballet and skating so that the children of banana producers feel that they are taken into account and thus create a new vision of producers from childhood to have a next friend and future client of the Motoragsa organization Cia. Ltd. with CSR as a strategy.

Agricultural fumigations in cities

Respercutions on the environment and on citizenship would improve in obtaining an Agricultural Drone because the liquid will no longer be dispersed in the environment and the fumigation will be much more efficient and ecological.

Ecological fumigations will be carried out with drones because it does not pollute rivers, it is almost exact in cultivation, since it uses an electrostatic system that consists of the liquid sticking to the plant.

As mentioned above, the agricultural drone fumigation system is very efficient and easy to maneuver, optimizing time, product and level of contamination in housing and irrigation areas, resulting in a fundamental part of CSR.

 

 

CONCLUSIONS

The Motoragsa organization Cia. Ltd. when looking for new business alternatives has this opportunity to offer drones and generate a new business idea. Banana growers and university students could easily capture the cloud operating system of the drone and thus facilitate agricultural work.      

CSR as a marketing strategy would be a good long-term option to focus on the organic banana. It has the best international acceptance, resulting in the best paid per box of bananas, that is, 8 dollars per box, in and out of season. On the other hand, the conventional producer drops to 2 dollars and even 1 dollar, causing a total loss in months like June, July, August, and September. The drone is a mechanism that will mitigate many diseases provoked by aerial spraying.

The Motoragsa organization Cia. Ltd. has to create center of arts, dance, skating and non-common activities to promote or motivate student with scholarships, for parents be reciprocal in recommending the Drones of the organization and see the benefits of winning and winning as a marketing strategy. At present, the agricultural and ecological drone systems are going to rebound in demand due to viruses such as COVID-19, even within large cities it will be necessary to sanitize and disinfect streets, parks, buildings that are difficult to reach manually.

As a result, the government's objective will be achieved by moving this 100% agricultural country forward with the help of a technology team and the financing of cooperatives.

 

FINANCING

Non- monetary

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks to the organic banana producers belonging to ASOGUABO for allowing the development of this research with social relevance.

 

REFERENCES

 

Agrocalidad (2018). Export requirements. Available from https://n9.cl/bzxlt

 

Alvarado-Herrera, A., & Schlesinger, M. W. (2008). Dimensionality of perceived business social responsibility and its effects on firm's image and reputation: a Carroll's model based approach. Management Studies. 24(108):  37-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0123-5923(08)70043-3

 

Baca- Urbina, G. (2013). Project evaluation. México: Mcgraw-Hill. Available from https://n9.cl/ho5ub

 

Banco Central del Ecuador (2019). The Ecuadorian economy grew 0.3% in the second quarter of 2019. Quito: Economic Issues. Available from https://n9.cl/fvao

 

Becchetti, L., Di-Giacomo, S., & Pinnacchio, D. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility and corporate performance: evidence from a panel of US listed companies. Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis (Routledge). 40 (05), pp. 541-567. Available from https://n9.cl/d317

 

Bernal, C. A. (2017). Introduction to organization management. Global and comprehensive approach. Mexico: Pearson Education of Mexico. Available from  https://n9.cl/otac

 

Bernal-Ávila, E. M., Erazo-Álvarez, J. C., & Narváez-Zurita, C. I. (2019). Organizational structures favorable to Business Efficiency. Koinonia Interdisciplinary peer- reviewed Journal, 1(4); 3-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/r.k.v4i1.370

 

Calderón-Cajiga, J. F. (2017). The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility. Available from https://n9.cl/3syw

 

Cavala (2015). ISO 26000 implementation. Available from https://n9.cl/ljhp

 

Coello-Mora, C. A. (2018). Banana export plan from Ecuador to Germany. Available from https://n9.cl/z5pj

 

FAIRTRADE (2018). Fairtrade Criterion for Merchants. Available from https://n9.cl/v8t0o

 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). The world state of agriculture and food. Harnessing food systems to achieve inclusive rural transformation. Available from https://n9.cl/1n8y

 

Fundación EU-LAC (2019).  Science, Technology and Innovation. Available from  https://n9.cl/67gr

 

Garriga, E., & Melé, D. (2011). CSR Theories Map. Available from https://n9.cl/fgcw

 

Gómez-Barrera, Y. (2010). The Culture of Design, strategy for the generation of value and innovation in the SMEs of the Central West Metropolitan Area, Colombia. Notebooks of the Center for Design and Communication Studies N°- 34.  Available from https://n9.cl/pdbd

 

González-Bustos, J. P., Narváez-Zurita, C. I., & Erazo-Álvarez, J. C. (2020). The management of social responsibility of the savings and credit cooperatives and their financial return in Azuay province. Domain  of Sciences, 04-33.

 

González, M. (2018).  Drones to spray. Are they viable for our crops? Available from https://n9.cl/rdib

 

Gupta, M. (2013). Creativity model STIM12 for the design of women's footwear under the focus of fuzzy outfits. Economy, vol. XLII, núm. 44; 129-152. Available from https://n9.cl/w9q8o

 

Harari, R., Harari, H., Harari, N., & Harari, F. (2011). Banana Production Impact on Health and Environment. Available from https://n9.cl/c0qm

 

International Organization for Standardization (2014). Discovering ISO 26000. Available from https://n9.cl/ue0o

 

International Organization for Standardization (2015). ISO 26000 project overview. Available from https://n9.cl/fszo

 

National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (2017). Survey of Surface and Continuous Agricultural Production (ESPAC) 2018. Available from https://n9.cl/29ts

 

Kotler, P., & Lane, K. (2012). Marketing direction. México: Pearson Education. Available from https://n9.cl/fjq4h

 

Martín, P. J., & Aroca-López, B. (2016). Corporate social responsibility in the familiar SMEs: a comparative study. European Journal of Family Business. 6, 21-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejfb.2016.05.002

 

Martínez, G. (2018). Banana producers and exporters talk to find a price for the fruit box. Available from https://n9.cl/dav1

 

Núñez-Medina, C. (2013). The development of a new model in a globalized world: The generation. Available from https://n9.cl/ikjff

 

Olcese-Santojo, A., & Rodríguez, M. A. (2008). Responsible and sustainable company manual. Madrid, Spain: McGraw-Hill Interamerican. Available from https://n9.cl/th5mo

 

Ortíz, J. (2008.). Development of a Low Cost Autopilot System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Virginia Commonwealth University. https://doi.org/10.25772/EEV1-7942

 

Paredes-Montero, B. (2020). Decrease in the labor force in the banana sector in Ecuador. Available from https://n9.cl/3dru

 

Perrine, F. (2013). The Complementarity of Corporate Social Responsibility and Innovation: Evidence from Belgian Firms. Global Journal of Business Research, The Institute for Business and Finance Research, vol. 7(5), pages 99-113. Available from https://n9.cl/8lhrw

 

Picón-Vizhñay, J., Erazo-Álvarez, J., & Narváez-Zurita, C. (2019). Business expansion plan for the Transnexus Company of the Graiman Industrial Group. Koinonía Interdisciplinary peer- reviewed Journal, 1(4); 274-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/r.k.v4i1.459

 

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). Strategy and Society Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.  Available from https://n9.cl/gdhq

 

Porter, M. (2008). The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. Available from https://n9.cl/bna7

 

Porter, M. E. (2007). Competitive advantage. Available from https://n9.cl/hwdp

 

Saquicela-Rodas, V. H., Erazo-Álvarez, J. C., & Narváez-Zurita, C. I. (2019). Strategic Management Model for MSMEs that make up the Azuayo Artisan Passage. Koinonía Interdisciplinary peer- reviewed Journal,1(4), 206-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/r.k.v4i1.456

 

Silvestein, M., Fiske, N., & Butman, J. (2008). Trading up. The Boston Consulting Group, Inc

 

Stanton, W., Etzel, M.,  &  Walker, B.  (2004). Fundamentals of Marketing. McGraw-Hill

 

Technical Planning Secretariat “Plan Ecuador” (2017). National Development Plan 2017 – 2021. A lifetime. Available from https://n9.cl/4kq4

 

Thompson, I. (2005). Market segmentation. Available from https://n9.cl/6eqy5

 

Trelles-Méndez, E., Erazo-Álvarez, J., & Narváez-Zurita, C. (2019). The influence of the 4Ps in Digital Marketing for the JPE savings and credit Cooperative. Koinonía Interdisciplinary peer- reviewed Journal, 1(4); 180-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/r.k.v4i1.455

 

Villarreal-Hernández, C., & López Chim, H. (2015). Crop pollinator drone. Technologies applied for sustainable alternatives. Mexican Journal of Agricultural Sciences. V. 1, 2015, pp. 67-71. Available from https://n9.cl/p9z5

 

Zambrano, L. (2020). The growth of banana exports slowed in 2019. Available from https://n9.cl/y7hy

 

 

© 2020 by the author. This article is open access and distributed under the terms and conditions of the CreativeCommons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/ 4.0 /).  

 

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2020 Oscar Patricio Ramon-Minchala, Juan Carlos Erazo-Álvarez, Cecilia Ivonne Narváez-Zurita, Verónica Paulina Moreno

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.

FUNDACIÓN kOINONÍA

RIF: J-407575716

Koinonía. Revista Arbitrada Interdisciplinaria de Ciencias de la Educación, Turismo, Ciencias Sociales y Económicas, Ciencias del Agro y Mar y Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas

Hecho el depósito legal: FA2016000010

ISSN: 2542-3088

Registro Nacional de Revistas Científicas. Código: 1F.K302. ONCTI. Venezuela.

presidencia@fundacionkoinonia.com.ve

 

Web Page URL: https://fundacionkoinonia.com.ve/ojs/index.php/revistakoinonia

OAI-PMH URL: https://fundacionkoinonia.com.ve/ojs/index.php/revistakoinonia/oai.

 

 

Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-No Comercial-Compartir Igual 4.0 Internacional

 

DIRECTORIOS

Latindex DirectorioActualidad IberoamericanaMIARERIH PLUS;

ROADDOAJOAJICIRC

 

ÍNDICES Y SERVICIOS DE RESÚMENES

CLASEBIBLATPKP INDEXCROSSREFThe Keepers Registry;

JournalTOCs; AMELICA-REDALYC

 

PORTALES DE REVISTAS/ HEMEROTECAS VIRTUALES

DIALNETREDIBBASEElectronic Journals Library

 

CATÁLOGOS

WorldcatLatindex Catálogo 2.0SERIUNAMREBIUN

 

BASES DE DATOS

OPENAIREHINARIOAREAGORA

RESEARCHT4LIFE; ATOZ.EBSCOAURA; SHERPA/RoMEO; DIMENSION; CAPES

 

AGREGADORES

LatinRev; Latinoamericana; CORE

 

SITIOS WEB ACADÉMICOS ESPECIALIZADOS

ResearchGate; Academia.edu;

MENDELEY