http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/r.k.v5i10.838

 

Factibilidad del Emprendimiento Turístico Rural

 

Feasibility of the Rural Tourism Enterprise

 

 

Johanna Cristina Galindo-Aguirre

johanna.galindo@psg.ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7310-9723

 

Juan Carlos Erazo-Álvarez

jcerazo@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6480-2270

 

Cecilia Ivonne Narváez-Zurita

inarvaez@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7437-9880

 

Moisés Marcelo Matovelle-Romo

mmmatoveller@ucacue.edu.ec

Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cuenca

Ecuador

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6260-6644

 

 

 

Recibido: 19 de marzo de 2020

Revisado: 12 de abril de 2020

Aprobado: 20 de mayo de 2020

Publicado: 01 de junio de 2020

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

In the Sigsig canton, Azuay province of Ecuador, we can find the community of Chobshi, which has countless tourist attractions, Andean natural places and landscapes, and a culture rich in traditions and customs. All these elements constitute a potential source of economic resources linked to rural tourism, which are not fully developed. The research problem resulted in the question based on the possibility of achieving a successful rural tourist venture, using the potentials offered by this sector and the absence of a relevant tourist offer. A descriptive methodology and the use of quantitative cutting tools were used to answer the question. The study yielded positive results due to entrepreneurship was articulated in the processes of reactivation of rural and community tourism including the managers of the province's tourism circuit, political actors and the local community.

 

Descriptors: Business economics; enterprises; resources development; ecotourism; market research.(Words taken from the UNESCO Thesaurus).

 

INTRODUCTION

The Sigsig canton, despite having several cultural and natural attractions, has not been able to experience an adequate development of the tourism sector. This is largely due to the lack of support from public entities to preserve and promote the uses of cultural and natural assets. This waste deepens the lack of job opportunities for the inhabitants of the sector, as well as migration and abandonment of the territory. The lack of vision to invest in the care of archaeological remains completes the complex social map that afflicts this population and, as a result, a minimum of tourist get inside this area. It should be clear that tourism is a source that generates employment, increases the economy, and activates the engine of social development. According to the Ministry of Tourism, only in 2018, 2.4 million people travelled to the country as tourists, 51% more than in 2017.

On the other hand, according to the Geoportal site for internal tourist visits of the Ministry of Tourism, it was observed that around 196,231 people went into the Sigsig canton in 2018. In the development of this research, the Municipal (DAG) of Sigsig stated that they did not have an official registry of cantonal tourism; however, they affirmed that the canton was visited by 30 or 40 international tourists per week, which depended on the calendar of annual festivities.

The strengthening of rural tourism generates possibilities to contribute to the economy of the host communities through the promotion of associations, roots and the reduction of the depopulation process. The diversification of the tourist offer generates new income and promotes another type of employment. Another important factor is that rural tourism gives prominence to women and young people; besides, it revalues ​​and preserves the cultural and natural heritage (Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism, 2008).

Rural tourism includes the enhancement of local social, cultural and environmental resources, as well as their maintenance as a key to sustainability (…) and local development”. (Domínguez and Lennartz, 2015, p2).

 

The intention of a feasibility study for the implementation of a rural tourism enterprise in the Sigsi canton is based on the generation of new economic income from the production of alternative and quality tourism services, which in turn, contribute to the local economic development and the “decrease in poverty and in the migration index, situations that have worsened in recent years” (Garduño-Mendoza, et al., 2009, p.2).

The objective of this research was to examine the feasibility of a rural tourism establishment in the Chobshi community. It gathered elements that allowed us to look at the possibility of implementing a rural tourism enterprise in a space with many attractions that could offer lodging, food, and rural tourism services (Padilla, Erazo, & Narváez, 2019).

The undertaking of a sustainable tourist establishment is not an easy task because different factors must be taken into account, such as: social, economic, and cultural in addition to the fact that a significant investment is needed to minimize risks with adequate planning and prior studies. In any case, all the elements of the project must be focused on developing an alternative tourist proposal with quality that provides a satisfactory experience to the visitor without affecting the natural or cultural tourist heritage of the area.

The trends of the contemporary world have considered economic entrepreneurship tourism as one of the best ways for multidimensional development, supporting the development of people, organizations and, in a broader sense, of the country; for this reason, governments have implemented programs and projects to promote this route (Oyarvide-Ramirez et al, 2016). A tourist activity is connected to the territory, to the personal factor and to the economic factor that "make tourism activity desirable” (Hernández and Estrella, 2016, p.6).

 

METHOD

This research had a descriptive scope. Information was collected from men and women over 18 years old in order to measure demand. The design of this research was non-experimental, since no type of variable was intentionally manipulated. It was also classified as cross-sectional, since the information was collected in a single moment. The method was deductive and the analytical-systemic method was developed to examine the characteristics of each of the variables, as well as a synthesis of the acquired results, as mentioned by (Rodríguez-Jiménez & Pérez-Jacinto, 2017).

In this research, the formula of the study universe was not carried out, because the sample was less than 100 people, which allowed collecting information from 75 workers of Travel Agencies, Tourism Operators of the city of Cuenca, Tourism Foundation, Municipal DAG of Sigsig, Ministry of Tourism- Zone 6, and 12 teachers of the tourism career.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESULTS

PROPOSAL

Based on the results obtained from the surveys and the different sources of information, different phases were proposed:

 

Phase 1: Market study

The questions were made to experts from the tourism sector. Once the information has been analyzed, it indicates that it is feasible to carry out the project for the implementation of a quality tourist service. To achieve this, the lodging service will be offered with rooms, a restaurant with à la carte dishes, and the opportunity to enjoy rural tourism with the guide of experts. This project is located in the Chobshi sector, very close to the archaeological remains in order to carry out different observation and recreation activities that link the community and help to improve the economy of the sector.

The "Cacique Duma" Tourist Inn will be a tourist, patrimonial and natural place, which will have common rooms, bathroom and restaurants. Complementary activities will be carried out such as excursions, guided tours of the site, visit to the museum, horseback riding, observation of toquilla straw weaving, as well as the existence of a green space where tourists may stay overnight in a tent, having contact with nature and in the same sector of the archaeological remains.

 

Demand

According to the information obtained, 85% of the people surveyed will visit the sector if there is a quality tourist site, where accommodation, food and guidance services are offered. Chobshi has great potential; however, the lack of attention from the authorities has deteriorated its tourism and even its archaeological remains.

Other important information obtained from the surveys is that 90% of people say they know Chobshi, and 65% of them consider that Chobshi has enough attractions to be classified as a tourist destination.

Respondents believe that the most important tourist attractions that Chobshi has are: first, the archaeological remains, then the Chobshi Museum, moderately important the Chobshi Lagoon, and of less importance the Chobshi Pailón, the Black Cave of Chobshi and the Cacique Duma Castle, respectively.

 

Offer

65% of the people consider that Chobshi has enough attractions to be classified as a tourist destination. The main sites that people have visited in Chobshi are: archaeological remains with 80%, Chobshi Black Cave with 75%, museum with 65%, Casique Duma castle with 60%, Chobshi lagoon with 30% and the Chobshi pailón with 25%.

 

Phase 2: Technical study

The project will be located in the community of Chobshi, Sigsig canton, Azuay province, 62 km from the city of Cuenca. It is here where archaeological remains are found and constitute one of the oldest finds in the country that has some tourist sites around it.

Experts indicate that this place was possibly a site of rituals, meetings and socialization. The presence of the first male inhabitants has been found. The Cañari culture also inhabited this place between 1450 BC. and 500 A.D. (Miller, 2011).

For the implementation of the project, the collaboration of the personnel is required, considering a total cost in remunerations per year of $ 43,968.00 necessary for the execution of the project.

The total investment for its respective operation is $ 92,149.44 which includes fixed investment, working capital, general expenses, and supervision expenses.

 

 

 

Phase 3: Administrative and legal study

The name of the project will be Posada Turística "Cacique Duma", a name taken from one of the famous leaders of the Cañari culture.

The organic structure will be made up of the administrator, the lodging, food and tourism-guidance departments. The lodging department will be made up of the reception and cleaning service; the food department includes the chef, a kitchen assistant and a waiter; finally, the department of tourism and guidance will be composed of the native guides and the driver. It is important to note that the people who collaborate with the company will be from Chobshi, but they will be trained before they can provide the required service.

The company will be established as a family business that will be dedicated to offering accommodation, food and rural tourism services. All employee contracts will be registered with the benefits of the law.

 

Phase 4: Financial study

The financial study helps us determine if the undertaking is feasible, and in the case of the proposed project, everything indicates that it is profitable. Through the financial analysis, it has been determined that the business investment is $ 92,149.44, the $ 149.44 belong to own capital and the $ 92,000.00 were obtained through a loan to BanEcuador with a term of 10 years, with a nominal rate of 9.76% and an effective rate of 10.21%. The monthly installments would be approximately of $ 1,200.00.

The internal rate of return (IRR) has been obtained at the value of $ 216,461.06 for this project, which means that the economic viability of the feasibility study is verified and the investment made is recovered.

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSIONS

It is important to note that it is difficult to bring international tourists to the city of Cuenca and it will be much more difficult to get them to the Sigsig canton, so the project will initially be aimed at attracting local and national tourists to develop a powerful promotion of social networks and website, without neglecting foreigners. The promotion will also be carried out through the Tourism Operating Agencies to offer and sell the products.

It is significant to understand that currently there are new trends in tourism that are aimed at seeking new attractions far from large urban centers, that is, people no longer seek traditional tourism but rather want to carry out non-traditional activities such as being in contact with the nature and with people who may provide them with knowledge. It is very important to promote all the attractions and services that Chobshi has since, in this way, the tourist will have more options at the time of visiting. For tourism to be strengthened in this area, it is necessary to create an articulated work between the Municipal DAG of Sigsig, the Ministry of Culture and Heritage, the Ministry of Tourism, and the community of Chobshi to build a policy that safeguards its cultural heritage and contributes to the tourist promotion. To accomplish this goal, this team should not only consider the restoration of archaeological remains and the exhibition of recovered objects, but also the relationship of people with their identity and the preservation of nature. The manifestations of the intangible and symbolic heritage are fundamental elements in the activation of balanced development and natural benefit to alternative tourism.

Finally, it is essential to adapt to technology and implement free Wi-Fi for tourists that allow them to use internet; facilitate access to social networks for doing business, reservations, contracts, etc.; provide communication services and share the opinions that tourists have about their experiences in the place.

 

FINANCING

Non- monetary.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to the workers of the Travel Agencies, Tourism Operators of Cuenca city, Tourism Foundation, Municipal DAG of Sigsig, Ministry of Tourism- Zone 6, and teachers of the tourism career of Cuenca and Azuay Universities.

 

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